Ethnomusic : A collection of scientific articles and materials devoted to 25 universary of PRSLME of the Mykola Lysenko Lviv National Music Academy / Ed. Yurij Rybak. Lviv, 2018. Number 14. 244 p.   PDF

The fourteenth yearbook "Ethnomusic" contains research articles on the history and theory of musical folklore, ethnoorganology and instrumentation, pedagogy, as well as reviews, reports and chronicles for 2017.
From editor   PDF
Lina Dobrianska
About realization of the first stage of development of the fundamental problem "Folk music of Halychyna and Volodymyria": innovative activity of the Research Scientific Laboratory of Musical Ethnology 1990s–early 2000s   PDF
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The article considers versatile ethnomusicographic activities of the Research Scientific Laboratory of Music Ethnology (RSLME) in initial period of its activity (1990–2004) under the direction of Bohdan Lukaniuk.

A brief historical outline of the ethnomusicological studies of the Lviv Conservatory has been submitted, the chronology of educational reform in pedagogy and scientific ethnomusicological studies of higher education has been presented, which resulted in the establishment of a new scientific institution, the Scientific-Researching Laboratory of Music Ethnography, on the basis of the Office of Folk Music as early as 1990's.

The main innovations introduced by B. Lukaniuk in the etnomusicology and education were outlined. PSRLME in cooperation with Music Folklore Department of the Mykola Lysenko Lviv High Music School has rapidly developed into a trusted ethnomusicological institution well established in Ukraine and abroad. The main innovations were: carefull planning of all activities of the Laboratory as an integral part of the project "Folk music of Galicia and Volodymyria"; the methodological and practical reform of musical education; establishment of an careful field research and archiving strategy as integral part of historical and ethnomusicological research programmes of the Western Ukraine ethnomusicological areals; a reform of Ethnomusicographic data archive: careful planning of field research programmes, establishments of new funds and collections, systematic archiving of current & historical records, etc.

The results of the initial period of the activities of PSRLME in the field of musical and ethnographic data archives are summarized, including the historical timeline of the implementation of as much as two dozen research programs and sub-programs which were then initially established, and a series of indicators has been created to provide historical timeline reference.

The article is prepared on the basis of the data archives of documentation and printed sources.

Key words: music folklore, ethnomusicology historical records, etnomusicological data archives, archiving data strategies, Bohdan Lukaniuk, PSRLME
Nadiya Suprun-Yaremko
Kuban Ukrainian-Cossack Wedding: Songs & Ceremonial, structural analysis   PDF
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In current article author presents traditional Kuban Ukrainian-Cossack wedding, on the ground of typological data, archived in 268 items, recorded in 46 settlements of historical Chornomorya (contemporary Kyban lowlands region of Russian Federation), transcribed and archived according to the historically reconstructed wedding ceremony of procession 29 magical rites. Overall the collection is subdivided upon the rites of initiation, wedding & post-wedding ceremonies; by structural-melodical typology-recitatory-exclamational (134), cantilena (31), of mixed types (102), dancant (1). The recitatory-exclamatory songs constitute the core of wedding ceremonies, cantilena mixed - the historical epic songs, cantilena mixed dancant – the core of common non-ritual songs.

The initiation rites (82) correspond to 10 ceremonies-wooing, betrothal, engagement, crowning of a wreath, maiden evensongs, summon songs, wedding feast, orphan songs, wedlock. 178 items illustrate 16 wedding rites of ceremony, according to wedlock, wedding feast, redemption of the bride, treatment of bride, ritual maiden evensongs, wedlock attire, the departure of the bride. 8 songs correspond to three rites of post-wedding ceremony. The recitatory-exclamatiory songs are performed on every ceremony of a rite (as an integral rite) or interferential (as co-habitative, musicianship of a ceremonial), formulating a polythem atic and polysemantic ceremony.

In dramatical-epic songs the melodic embellishments flourish over the vocalized vowels. 15 non-ritual lirycal songs were performed irregarding of the ceremony. Ethnomusical analysis arguably supports the theory of common historical origin and background of songs and rites under consideration, preserved in commemoration of singers, the legacy of kuban history' historical traditions, of rytmicall cowariative combinatories and art of vocalizing and embellishments.

Key words: Ukrainian Kuban wedding, historical Chornomorya, ritual songs, ceremony of rites, style, vocalization, recitation, cantilena.
Nastassia Danilovich
Calendar-song tradition of Middle Shchara in the context of the ethnographical borderland   PDF
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The article considers a calendar-song tradition of Middle Shchara – an ethnocultural area, located at the crossborder region of the Western and Central Polesye, Belarusian Ponemon'e and Central Belarus.

Ethnomusicological field research recordings of the Belarusian State Academy of Music to Lyahovichskij (1982 – headed by V. Soltan, 1993 – headed by L. Kostyukovets), Ivatsevichi (2004 – head by T. Berkowitz), Baranovichi (2015 – headed by L. Barankiewicz) districts, Brest region, were mainly used for typological research.

The correspondence were found in the winter repertoire of Middle Shchara between the existence of the old Kaliada tunes as well as clearly defined Kaliada game type "Goat" tunes. Notably children's round dance-games are used as Kaliada (Christmas) and Spring games.

Valachobny tunes were used not only as a part of Vyalikdzien (Easter) greetings but also as general Spring and St. George's tunes. The existence of special "Yurovy" (St. George?s Day) round dance tune were discovered in the Middle Shchara locus.

The special unique performing manner of local midsummer (Kupala) tunes were elaborated. The notable tinge of style of this region are Stippling fixations and variety of reaping tunes with interweaving manifestations song styles of Polesye and Ponemon'e.

The Middle Shchara autumn repertoire, is elaborated as of notable accordance to the time of harvesting of flax songs of love or family domestic subjects.

Peculiarities of the calendar-song tradition of Middle Shchara described as pertaining of the ethnoregional borderland, which is manifested in combination of attributes not only of Polesye (Western, Central and even the East) and Ponemon'e, but also the Central Belarusian song areals.

Key words: Calendar-song tradition, Middle Shchara, ethnoregional borderland, Belarusian Polesie, Belarusian Poneman'ie, melogeography.
Victoriya Jarmola
Ergology of Western Polissian folk reed pipes   PDF
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In the publication, a technological system of traditional whistling reed pipes produced by folk artists, widespread in Western Polissia, is revealed for the first time in a step-by-step process. The proposed exploration is based on its expeditionary records and material collected by various folklorists and employees of Kyiv and Lviv research institutions, as well as some literary sources.

The existence of three types of nozzle instruments, the names of which correspond to the methods of their production: a pipe made from bark, a vykrutka and kolianka are established.

Western Polissian folk reed pipes belong to the type of longitudinal whistle flutes with an internal cleft formed by the insertion of the whistling device at the upper end of the tube, and with holes placed on the front, sometimes on the back of the instrument. Whistle airphones have specific production features, according to the age group of masters: shepherd children, teens and adults.

The easiest to manufacture among the discovered pipe instruments are ones made of bark, which had been previously removed from the branches of bush trees. In the process of removing the bark shepherds told special spells, which were recorded by the author on the researched area. The following two types of tools were made of wood: a kolianka in the form of a longitudinal splitting of the branch into two equal parts, a vykrutka - a screwing out the core of pine wood, which required a masters knowledge of certain empirical and professional skills.

The folk pipe instruments played the role of a musical instrument, which corresponded to the individual artistic and aesthetic test of the flute maker and served as an integral part of the Polisian shepherd's everyday life

Key words: musical instruments, fipple flutes, technology of manufacture, wood, Western Polissya.
Bohdan Yaremko
The artistic background of Demyan Lyndyuks' ('Popychyn') - representative of Kosmach fiddle tradition   PDF
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The article describes the background of historical Gutshul traditional fiddler Demyan Lyndyuk ('Popychyn') (1919-1959), from the Kosmach village of Kosiv region of Ivano-Frankivsk. The historical research were undertaken on the ground of historical data, received at 2006 from the Demyans' niece Maria Ivasyuk, as well as from Kovalivka vilage Ivan Sokoluik-the-fiddler, who made the valuable contribution unto research, and played from memory two tunes by D. Lyndyuk, which he recollected as they were played by Demyan himself. Appended to the article the transcription of one of these Demyan Popychyn tunes, prepared by Lviv Music Academy post-graduate Yarema Pavliv at 2018. This tune is the virtuoso stanza of Gutsulka suite, composed of four stanzas, the tunes unfolding by varaitive conbinatorics principle of four related or contrasting, finely embellished melodic motives. This piece, and moreover, the second one, 'Song Tune', are characteristic of Demyan Lyndyuks' performing manner, marked by inventive and exqusite melodic style, cheracteristic of Gutsul regional tradition. As appears, Demyan Lyndyuk ('Popychyn') were one of the most prominent representatives of the latter, the father-founder of which were Vasyl Vandzaruk, followed by fully-fledged fiddlers and teachers Dmytro Gudymyak, Vasyl Pozhodzhuk, Ivan Menyuk, Mykhaylo Slochak, Kyrylo Lyndyuk, and, in contemporary tradition, Ivan Sokolyuk. Among these names the proud of the place belongs to Fiddler Demyan Lyndyuk ('Popychyn'), who made outstandng contribution into frourishing of Gutsul instrumental and vocal musicianship. The life of this fiddler were short, but very intense and deserved to be preserved by grateful memory of coming generations of outstanding fiddlers of Kosmach-Shepit tradition of kosiv region.

Key words: fiddler, Kosmach tradition, ethnic music of instrumental & vocal tradition, melodic embellishment, art of musicianschip.
Jarema Pavliv
A comparative analysis of "Hutsulka" in the performing interpretations by two violinists representing the tradition of the Kosmach-Brusturiv areal   PDF
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In the offered article, a comparative analysis of two performing versions of the wedding ceremonial dance "Hutsulka", dominant in the Eastern Carpathians region of Ukraine has been made, with outstanding violinists-capellists, which, based on traditions and their own virtuoso style, developed this dance genre due to the accumulation of stable and mobile elements of melo-, rhythm- and form-making, as well as the establishment of aesthetics of regional styles.

The material for the study was the audio version of the "Hutsulka" recorded on the basis of the performance of two violinists representing the region of Kosmach-Brusturiv villages tradition – Kyrylo Lyndiuk ("Vityshyn", 1929–2003) (recorded by prof. Bogdan Lukaniuk in 1991) and Ivan Sokoliuk (born in 1944; Musician's own recording of 2017) – and transcribed by the author of the article.

The performance of "Hutsulka" by each violinist is characteristic of common and distinctive features concerning the formation of the variative composition, the thematic material (respectively, 29 and 43 themes of kolomyika, kozachok and voloshka bases), tonality and rhythmic structuring, individual interpretation of ornamentation, which is collectively connected with artistic orientation on certain artistic and performing directions, presented by iconic musicians-predecessors.

The formal features of the Hutsulka composition depends on scenery where it is performed (1); the tonality outline determined by established regional tradition (2), and rhythmic outline, by the overall style, varyation technics, updating and ornamentation of rhythmic formulas, characteristic of the personal manner and style of the performer (3).

Ornamentation, as the essence of the performing style of any Hutsul musician, in K. "Vityshyn" is characterized by intense interweaving of short melismatic legal groups and non-legal figurations within melodic line and texture. I. Sokoliuk enriches the linear movement with prolonged melismatic groups and rhythm-intonational and figurational turns that decorate it and amplify the expression of dance overall sonority. In performing aesthetics of K. Lyndiuk prevails an acute articulation of melodic expressiveness with accented and often pointed rhythmic patterns that provides representative-temperamental virtuosity. For strategic performance aesthetics of I. Sokoliuk, rich in virtuosic expressiveness, is characterized by choral and transparent ringing articulation in the context of "stratum"-development creation of the whole large-scale virtuoso composition.

Each version reveals individual compositional, improvised, techno-performing, emotional as well as aesthetic mind of their creators. All these qualities, formed by both musicians in a single tradition and expressed in related kolomyika and kozachok-voloshka tunes, present the decision of developmental, composite, rhythmic, intonational, articulation, tempo and many other aspects of style, characteristic of folk violinists – soloists and capellists, inherent to each of them, in their performing manner, evident in "Hutsulka" rendering.

Key words: “Hutsulka” Dance, Kosmach-Brusturiv villages tradition, Kyrylo Lyndiuk “Vityshyn", Ivan Sokoliuk, hutsul volk violinists.
Bohdan Lukaniuk
Special Class : Program for musical hight school (III–IV accreditation level) for speciality № 025 "Music art", Specialization "Ethnomusicology" (Baccalaureate degree)   PDF
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The article outlines requirements, content and educational criteria for the students of ethnomusicology. The educational programm for professional bachelor's degree are explained.

The program summarises Bohdan Lukaniuk' educational and scientific experience. It lies at the foudation of the ethnomusicology curriculum of Ethnomusicology Department of Mykola Lysenko Lviv National Music Academy.

The curriculum and related disciplines of graduate & post-graduate studies are expostulated. The courses of specialization, including historical, typological, field research, archival & related programmes are explained. The plan of studies, as of undertaken specialization, subordinated to the curriculum schedule and the tutorial plan are included in the curriculum.

The educational curriculum of the student-ethnomusicologist are defined as follows: the processing of professional literature, mastering of ethnomusicological disciplines, performance of baccalaureate work. The course af studied is aimed at the curriculum graduation. One of its possible variants is the preparation of a folklore collection based on the field research materials of a particular folk performer. According to the structure, this collection should carry explanatory remarks including verified quotations, if needed, to the classical sources of ethnomusicology, and should contain only originally recorded, transcribed and systematized field research materials. The detailed specific requirements of a verified field reasearch data archiving, including pointers to the musical part, etc. ensures precision and historical authenticity. It is also desirable to supplement audio discs with concise historical information about the folk artists.

Finally, the program is supplied by the essential list of literature curriculum.

Key words: ethnomusicology, ethnomusicologcal studies, curriculum studies (master class), baccalaureate.
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