Ethnomusic. Lviv, 2020. Volume 16: A collection of scientific articles and materials devoted to Professor Irina Dovhaliuk / Ed. Lina Dobrianska. 248 p.   PDF

The sixteenth yearbook "Ethnomusic" contains scientific articles by researchers from Ukraine, the United States, Israel, Belarus, covering a wide range of issues in various fields of history and theory of musical folklore. The collection also includes works on pedagogy, rare newly found archival materials, as well as reviews, reports and chronicles for 2019-2020.
From editor   PDF
Iryna Dovhaliuk
Biography pages   PDF
Andriy Vovchak
Scientific work of Irina Dovhaliuk in the field of history of Ukrainian ethnomusicology   PDF
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The article offers an overview of 30 years of scientific activity of Lviv ethnomusicologist Iryna Dovhaliuk in the field of history of Ukrainian ethnomusicology. The multifaceted creation of the researcher has been revealed in the main problematic and thematic areas, taking into account the time dynamics of the studio deployment.

Among the considered directions: a) musical and ethnographic activity of Ukrainian folklorist Osyp Rozdolskyi: b) history of publication of Ukrainian folk music; c) folkloristic activity of Filaret Kolessa; d) history of phonography of Ukrainian folk music; e) folk music archiving (phonoarchiving).

Peculiarities of the research style of Iryna Dovhaliuk, theoretical and methodological and applied tools of her historical searches have been traced. Emphasis is placed on the scrupulousness and diversity of source studies of Iryna Dovhaliuk, the focus on maximum objectivity and provability of scientific conclusions; on meticulous attention to the smallest facts on the research problem in order to trace its development as fully as possible and on this basis to comprehensively understand the general tendencies; on a wide amplitude of historical and theoretical generalizations of the processes of formation and development of Ukrainian ethnomusicology in a broad comparative context with similar processes in the world music folklore studies.

Special emphasis is placed on the active scientific and socio-cultural position of the researcher, and in particular on the unique projects of Iryna Dovhaliuk for Ukrainian science to preserve and introduce into scientific circulation the musical and ethnographic heritage of Ukrainian collectors, in particular valuable collections of phonorecords of Ukrainian folk music of the first half of the twentieth century.

The review has been prepared mainly on the basis of printed publications of Iryna Dovhaliuk, as well as the analysis of her research and promotion projects and events.

Key words
: Iryna Dovhaliuk, history of ethnomusicology, Osyp Rozdolskyi, phonograph, folk music phonography, publication of Ukrainian folk music, Filaret Kolessa, folk music archiving (phonoarchiving).
Bohdan Lukaniuk
Notes to biography of Clyment Kvitka: So when Clyment Kvitka visited Cucavets? (ending)   PDF
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The second part of the proposed papers (the first part was published in the previous issue of "Ethnomusic") covers detailed history of the ethnographic and folk music collection activity of ethnomusicologist Clyment Kvitka and dialectologist Olena Kurylo in 1924th–1926th based on historical information from printed and archival sources.

In 1924 the geographical orientation of the corporate expeditions of K. Kvitka and O. Kurylo changed from the Polissya to the Podillya region. In the spring of 1924 they traveled to the Vinnytsia oblast by train to observe live performance of the Easter rituals. Apparently, having done this task, K. Kvitka suggested O. Kurylo visiting the final train's stop village Kamyanka on the river Dnister. From here, they went to the nearby villages, where Moldavians and German colonists lived, thanks to which they were able to study folklore of national minorities. Generally in the expedition they spent three weeks and collected 65 songs.

The next trip to Volyn and Podillya was scheduled for summer 1924 to collect materials on the history of culture and historical documents. In early August, Kvitka took a train to Vinnytsia and returned to Kyiv in three weeks, but there is no information about the collection work done there.
Just two weeks later, K. Kvitka (together with M. Hayday) set off again – this time to the Middle Polissya – in Korosten, Zhytomyr and Berdychiv districts, where he recorded 20 melodies. O. Kurylo obviously did not take part in this expedition.

O. Kurylo and K. Kvitka returned to the joint expeditions in the following year, going in the summer on their second Podillya "excursion" for a two-week period. They planned to visit Zhytomyr, Berdychiv, Shepetivka, Proskuriv, Kamyanets and Vinnytsia districts, and especially towns Slavuta, Teofipol and others. In his list of records for 1925 K. Kvitka mentioned thirty-five recordings of folk melodies from Vinnytsia and Kamyanets-Podilsky regions, but only one of them is known – ballads about a seduced girl in Polish performed by O. Pototska from the Russian Filvarki settlement. In their expeditionary sessions O. Kurylo recorded poetic texts and it allowed K. Kvitka to concentrate on writing down musical notes, in particular, to trace possible performing melodic "variations", which was one of the most characteristic features of his transcriptions of that period. In return, dialectologist O. Kurylo professionally wrote folk songs poetic texts, noting semi-phonological features. It is worth quoting the whole transcription made by Kvitka and Kurylo with the author's notes to give a clear idea of the unprecedentedly high scientific level of fixation of folklore material.

Collectors continued to explore Podillya in the following 1926, going there together for the third time. Again, K. Kvitka wanted like earlier to watch live Easter rituals for which the time and place were chosen in advance. It was village Kukavka. Such details of K. Kvitka's work with singers as the creation of an atmosphere of respect and friendliness with some encouragement the performers with small treat or small payment seem to be interesting. In general, the expedition lasted a month and a half and was finished at the end of the first decade of June. Apparently, immediately after returning to Kyiv, O. Kurylo moved to Vinnytsia in August. After 1926 O. Kurylo no longer took part in joint expeditions as well as K. Kvitka. Apparently, the plan of field research (primarily dialectological) was succeeded, at least in general, and scientists focused entirely on the study of the obtained materials, primarily from Podillia.

Thus, we only know about the materials collected by O. Kurylo and K. Kvitka in the expeditions of 1922–1926, which were published largely on occasion. The rest of the hard work in five years seems to have disappeared.

Key words: Clyment Kvitka, Olena Kurylo, folkloric expeditions, researches, biography.
Nadiya Suprun-Yaremko
Hryhorii Kontsevych's Music-foikloristic activity   PDF
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Musical and folkloristic activities of the Kuban activist Hryhorii Kontsevych, Ukrainian in origin, lasted for half a century under conditions of the Russian Empire, and from 1920 – Soviet totalitarian socio-political reality, of which he became the innocent victim in 1937, accused of being involved in the preparation of terrorist attack against Stalin. Kontsevych' name o and his versatile activity as a chanter, folklorist, composer, teacher and organizer of music affairs in the Krasnodar Territory of the Russian Federation have been hushed up for 52 years (until 1989). In her paper, the author, as a native of the Krasnodar Territory and researcher of folk culture of the Ukrainians from Kuban, set out an objective to draw up a creative portrait of H. Kontsevych and review his folklore collections and papers that were reprinted or found in the libraries and archives of Krasnodar with the support of the leader of Kuban Cossack Choir, folklorist, Honoured Artist of Russia, Ukraine and Adygea Viktor Zakharchenko. The paper draws up Kontsevych's creative portrait, examines (based on republication of 2001) the entire corpus of arranged and published in 1904–1913 276 song and analyses the collection "Musical folklore of Adygei in the records by H. M. Kontsevych", written shortly before his death, but first published in 1997. The research essay "Chumaks in folk songs" introduced to the scientific circulation. The research essay "Chumaks in folk songs" introduced to the scientific circulation. The conclusion is drawn up that it was exactly Hryhorii Komtsevych, who made the greatest contribution to the formation of Kuban musical folklore.

Key words: Hryhorii Kontsevych, Kuban, Krasnodar, folklor, cossacks, folk songs, arranger, transcriptor
Anthony Potoczniak
Evolution of the wedding in the Voroniaky region: in the footsteps of Oscar Kolberg and Osyp Rozdolsky   PDF
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Contemporary folk expeditions "retracing the footsteps of predecessors" belong to some of the most important and far-reaching research areas of folkloristics. Ethnographic materials representing different epochs from a geographic area can be used for comparative study. As a result, it is possible to consider evolutionary processes and external influences on oral traditions of a geographic area over a period of time.

Thanks to the existence of ethnographic field notes of the traditional wedding ceremony in the Voronyaky region (Brody district, Lviv oblast) made in the second half of the 19th century, these processes can be observed and quantified. Collected by prominent collectors of musical folklore Oscar Kolberg (1814–1890) and Osyp Rozdolsky (1872–1945), these records of folk traditions are unparalleled in their historical and ethnographic significance in Ukrainian folklore studies. Not only do they establish a reference point to critically assess the collection of folk music of the previous era, they also provide evidence of how the wedding tradition has changed in the region by comparing them to more recent field recordings.

Thus, this study has several objectives. First, it examines the extent of ethnographic work completed by O. Rozdolsky and O. Kolberg in the Voronyaky region. Next, the methodological approach to collecting music is assessed, which determines how representative these materials are to the geographic area in question. The ethnographic materials from different periods are compared to determine the structural, semantic, and repertoire changes of the wedding ceremony. Lastly, an analysis of the wedding ritual cycle as practiced in the Voronyaky region – its ethnography and melotypology – is completed based on extensive contemporary field work of the region conducted by the author.

A comparison of the collected folk song materials from different time periods shows the extent of the changes of the Voronyaky wedding ceremony, especially in its song texts, the order of rituals, its form, and content. While a trend of the simplification of the wedding ritual (e.g., the length of the traditional wedding is shortened from two days to one day), the process of how the modern wedding ceremony has been simplified from its previous practice is described. Similarly, the study shows how the repertoire of older wedding songs are performed less frequently or have also been shortened compared to earlier recordings from the last century.

A similar tendency is observed with the melodies from the different periods in both quantitative and qualitative terms. A musical analysis and comparison of the melodies show a decrease in the total number of melodies performed throughout the ceremonies. Some of the melodies have been replaced by new ones, usually composed songs of literary origins associated with new wedding ceremonies. This simplification of the ceremony also affected the song forms themselves, which is most vividly expressed in the wedding chants and the recitative songs, which in more recent times have adopted more strophic forms.

Key words: expeditions retracing the footsteps of predecessors, O. Kolberg, O. Rozdolsky, wedding tradition, Voroniaky Region, ethnography, typology.
Michael Lukin
Yakov Mazor
Edwin Seroussi
Olha Kolomyyets
"Tish-Nign 3" from Beregovskii's Jewish Folk Tunes Without Words: An Introduction to the Study of Hassidic Music in its Ukrainian Context   PDF
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The article is a collaboration of two research projects: first one is the new annotated edition of Moisei Beregovskii's collection of Hassidic tunes (1946) in preparation by Yaakov Mazor in the framework of the Jewish Music Research Centre of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The second project is a collaborative Israeli-Ukrainian project titled "The Hassidic Nign in Right Bank Ukraine and East Galicia: Between Autochthonous and External Soundscapes" lead by the three additional authors of the present article.

The article is dedicated to the study of music in Ukrainian Hasidism, the main representative kind of which is nign – a religious song, performed mainly without words, by men, solo or collectively, in a monophonic texture, and fulfilling various religious functions of mystical background. Nign has apparently started to crystallize from the mid-eighteenth century onwards on the territories of Podillya and Volyn, with the consolidation of the Hassidic movement in those areas of Ukraine (then Poland and later on the Russian Empire).

Noticed by many scholars, the affinity that the Hassidic tunes have with the music of both Jewish and their co-territorial non-Jewish societies in Ukraine has led to the key question of this study, which is: What insights one can gain from the comparative analysis of melodies to the fuller picture of the Ukrainian Hassidic soundscape.

The methodology of the study of the Hassidic nign in its historical, regional and conceptual Ukrainian contexts is based on comparative analysis of the nign (the nign itself attributed to the founder of the Chernobyl dynasty, Rabbi Mordechai of Chernobyl, its tune transcribed by M. Beregovskii from memory in 1920 and republished many times), its another version transcribed by Joseph Achron, and the four Ukrainian compositions from the anthology of Ukrainian folk melodies by Z. Lysko.

The preliminary results of the comparative study of these musical texts in terms of form, modality, melodic contour, rhythm and performance practice, in this stage of the research show more differences than similarities between Hassidic and Ukrainian musical texts and contexts.

Key words: Hassidic music, Mojshe Beregovski, nign, melodic contour, rhythmic patterns, form, Rabbi Mordechai of Chernobyl.
Vasyl Koval
Three unknown letters of Filaret Kolessa   PDF
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Three unknown letters of Filaret Kolessa are the object of research in this scientific investigation: the first letter addressed to the "Reverend Father Dean" dated December 30, 1944, the second one to "Dear Friend Mykhailo Bardak, Master in Rudnyky" – January 14, 1945, and the third to "Her Excellency Mrs. Benefactress", without a date. A letter from his wife Maria is also considered. Seemingly, it would be enough just to publish them. But these letters are being a good material for systematic scientific research and comprehensive investigation of traditional spiritual culture, its carriers, connoisseurs and researchers, etc. Therefore, these messages deserve detailed textual analysis.

Summarizing the results, it should be noted that even a superficial systematic scientific research opens wide opportunities for further more detailed (in-depth) study of the invisible at first sight conclusions laid down in the object of study. This means, that a multidisciplinary approach should also be applied to the obtained scientific conclusions, which could be joined by interested specialists from different areas: in this case not only ethnomusicologists, but also folklorists, historians, biographers, theologians, and finally, Kolessa-scholars.

Key words: Filaret Kolessa, epistolary, folklore.
Tamara Yakimenka
Landscapes of the Belarusian ethnic music of archaic layer: aspects of study (based on publications of ethnomusicological works of young musicologists BSC / BSAM 1991–2013)   PDF
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Digests of articles by young musicologists of the Belarusian State Academy of Music, devoted to revealing the landscape panorama of the Belarusian ethnomusical culture of ritual genesis, are examined [1–5].

It's shown that the considerations of young researchers published in the ethnomusicological editions of 1991–2013 aim at studying the autochthonous and historically deep phenomena of the Belarusian folklore fund, at revealing the features of ethnic song and instrumental melos in ritual complexes of calendar-farming and life cycles.

A significant part of the research is devoted to the disclosure of typology, melogeography, functional load, intonational, structural-rhythmic-compositional and ethnophonic characteristics of song-ritual and instrumental practices of different regional and local traditions.

In the subject spectrum of the articles the important issues are the sound world of ethno-song archaic layer considered in the aspect of mytho-sound-poetics [5], the pitch, articulation and ethnophony of the ancient melos, conditioning thereof by the signal-communicative sound activity as a factor of stability of ritual sound standards in the musical consciousness of carriers for many centuries.

The 'song territories', which, as a result of placement on the borderland of historical-ethnographic and ethnocultural areas, are marked by a variety of linguistic influences, the coexistence of diverse anthropological types in the autochthonous population (with the appropriate difference in beliefs, ritual practices and lifestyles) found their study in the issues of the ethnomusicological series.

The ethno-song loci of various scales and levels – from their intraregional species ('local', 'special', 'island') [4] to status ones for ethnomusical cultures (the so-called 'regional borderland') [5] are studied. An ethnopsychological consideration is reflected in a number of articles [4].
Among the objects studied by young musicians there are significant ones in the ethnomusic culture of Belarusians song forms of the 'Valachobny' (Easter) and St George Day ancient rituals [1], congratulatory visiting rituals of the Carol period and the 'Yashchar' roundelay-game action assigned to the time of the Philippe post (Advent) [2], childbirth and narrative (ballad) songs [4], groups of 'Rajok'–'Sparysh'–'Dazhynki' (end of the Harvest) and 'Aviasets' (autumn) songs of Poozer'e (Lake district) [4], song traditions of the Maslenitsa (Shrovetide) ceremonies [4], the lead of the 'Arrow', 'Rusal', spring swings [5].

In the series of ethnomusicological collections of 1991–2013 landscapes of the ancient ethnomusic culture in its 'Belarusian' area on the territories of the Western Dvina basin, the upper course of the Dnieper, Dnieper–Druts–Berezina interfluve, Ponemanje [1–5] were disclosed from the positions corresponding to the leading directions of modern ethnomusicology.

The perspective of the researches carried out by young musicologists, their level and directly the potential of scientific problems were confirmed later in ethnomusicological dissertations [6–10], audio collections of the 'Audio Atlas of the Traditional Musical Culture of Belarus' and monographs [11–13].

Key words: Filaret Kolessa, epistolary, folklore.
Liudmyla Hapon, Roman Dzvinka
Traditional singing and modern folk performance: Program for music universities (III–IV levels of accreditation) in the specialty № 025 "Musical Art", specialization "Musical Folklore" ("Master's degree").   PDF
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The curriculum "Traditional Singing" was concluded in accordance with the current curricula of the Institute of Arts of Rivne State University for the Humanities and was designed for students of "Master's degree" specialization "Musical Folklore".

The strategy of building the program in the process of training folk musicians and performers of traditional folk music involves the presentation of traditional performance as a holistic system, which includes not only its components (performance style, genre and stylistic features, etc.), but also a modern presentation of folk music in the process its executive reconstruction. A special approach to understanding and streamlining the curriculum is provided by combining the range of creative experience of performing authentic songs and rethinking the modern conditions of the folk tradition.

The purpose of the course "Traditional Singing" is to deepen the knowledge of higher education students in the field of traditional performance and the study of modern forms of musical folklore and the peculiarities of its stage embodiment. In the process of equal development of traditional and modern folk performance, future professionals must be clearly aware of the role of ethnic roots in the reconstruction of the national musical heritage.

In the process of studying the discipline, the applicant must master professional competencies in the use of artistic means of expression in accordance with the style of folk music and readiness for creative activity in the direction of performance reconstruction and folklore arrangement of folk music.

The curriculum consists of three content modules. They include certain thematic material and cover relevant didactic tasks. It reveals the structure of the discipline, the requirements for independent work and individual tasks. Means of diagnostics of learning outcomes are determined.

Key words: musical folklore, traditional singing, manner of singing, performing reconstruction, modern folk performance.
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