The article examines a number of melo-typological features that appeared on the melogeographic maps of Ukraine as factors of the separation of the southwestern segment of the Ukrainian ethnic territory (UET). This segment is delineated in the article with the conventional name ‹Carpathian-Galician Melomassif› (KGM).
The criteria for distinguishing KGM became ritual melodies, the age of which is considered quite respectable – there are indirect evidences of the pre-Christian origin of many types of song compositions (meloforms, defined primarily by their rhythmic patterns and corresponding verse (syllabic) formulas). In fact, their areas, which appeared during the mapping of numerous large arrays of songs, are evidence of them – after all, these areas are partially correlated with archaeological cultures of distant times (from the beginning of the 1st millennium AD), so this direction of research can be described by the expression "musical archeology". About 60,000 recordings of ritual melodies of Ukrainians and neighboring ethnic groups (Belarusians, Poles, Lithuanians) were used to build the maps. 132 maps were published as a separate Atlas (Klymenko, I., Ritual Melodies of the Ukrainians in the Context of the SlavicBaltic Early Traditional Melomassif: Typology and Geography. Kyiv, 2020. Vol. 2: Atlas. 100 pp. + DVD. https://knmau.com.ua/wp-content/uploads/klymenko-d
The zone ‹Galicia + Carpathia› is distinguished as a separate ritual-song space according to two types of parameters: positive (А) and negative (B). These are the following positions:
А1 – meloforms with truly "Galician" arrays (individual types of winter songs (with a spondeic base ‹V*44; Р43 43 ›); a macrogroup of spring melodies with a ‹V446› base; Easter (ranciuvalni) songs; birth (christening) songs of various types);
A2 – meloforms with arrays that go beyond the boundaries of the zone ‹Galicia + Carpathia›, but in the Galician repertoire they are statistically dominant, so the KGM territory can be considered their core (carols with verse bases ‹V*443›, ‹V553›, shchedrivky-melankuvannia ‹V*442 ›; wedding, spring and harvest with a base ‹V7›; numerous game spring songs of the «character» type and other melo-forms);
A3 – meloforms with very large polyethnic arrays, which within the KGM limits have distinctive typological or areal «behavior» (winter songs of the ‹V55,р4› macrofamily; wedding macrotype of the ‹V*53› model);
A4 – specific techniques of rhythmic and compositional variation, specific to the KGM sector (the technique of adding the syllables; the technique of duplicating small syllabic groups);
B – «negative» markers: the absence in Galicia and the Carpathians of certain genres and meloforms characteristic of the neighboring regions – Central and Eastern Podillia and Volyn (Kupalo rites and songs; several forms of wedding songs, in particular, songs of the tirade type).
On the other hand, a series of melotypological factors have been established that show the belonging of the KGM zone to the great "cultural continent of the Ukrainian Right Bank" – these are markers of group C (shedrivkas ‹V442 › with an ascending Ionic figure; spring songs with bases ‹V*442 ›, ‹V4332 ›; harvest and wedding songs with the base ‹V7› and other meloforms).
In advance, we can say that "separation" factors (markers of groups A and B) look more powerful than integration factors (markers of group C). The "separation" line of the KGM zone in the east passes between the Seret and Zbruch rivers, in the north – along the line below Gorokhiv (Sokal – Radekhiv – Ikva river), in the west and south – almost coincides with the corresponding borders of the UET. The maps also show significant differences within the specified region, which allow the following sectors to be separated in KGM:
(a) the mountain part of the Carpathians: their northern slopes and the foothills;
(b) southern slopes of the Carpathians (Transcarpathia);
(c) the upper Dniester zone;
(d) sector of the right bank of the Dniester (to the watershed with the Western Bug and Prypiat basins). Keywords
: musical folklore of Ukrainians, Carpathians, Galicia, ritual melodies, modeling of musical forms, melotypology, morphology, mapping, arrays of ancient cultures, musical archeology.