Ethnomusic. Lviv, 2022. Volume 18: A collection of scientific articles and materials devoted to 100th anniversary of Volodymyr Hoshovskyi. Ed. Yuriy Rybak. 224 p. PDF

The eighteenth yearbook "Ethnomusic" contains articles by Ukrainian, Hungarian and Polish researchers, that cover a wide range of topics in various fields of history and theory of musical folklore. The collection also presents works on pedagogy, as well as reviews, reports and chronicle for 2022.
From editor
Volodymyr PasichnykХ
Scientific Biography of Volodymyr Hoshovskyi: to the Centenary Jubilee   PDF
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The article deals with the scientific biography of V. Hoshovskyi, mostly concerning the 50-year period of his creative life, spanning the years of 1946–1996. The circumstances of his life are discussed, which influenced the upbringing and professional background, among other. his manners and lifestyle, studies in gymnasium and University, the vast scientific educational background and erudition.

The utmost importance is given to ethnography studies, musical dialectology and Slavic studies.

The biography outline of V. Hoshovskyi spans several distinctive periods. First – Trans-Carpathian (1946–1960), concerned which ethnography, musical aesthetics, regional studies and elaboration of the principles of ethnomusicology, including the music dialectological studies.

Second – Lviv period (1961–1974), which pinnacled his elaborate studies in music dialectology and comparative Slavic studies. The important part of this period is the formation in his scientific studies the basics of cybernetic ethnomusicology.

The third period spans 1975–1996, which can be subdivided into two sub periods: the Armenian one (1975–1986), which is specifically concerned with elaboration of cybernetic ethnomusicology, and the Lviv one, which spans the last decade in life of the musicologist – 1986–1996 and is concerned with further elaborations in cybernetic ethnomusicology, as well as public relations and musicology courses by V. Hoshovskyi.

We can stress that V. Hoshovskyi were not only the promoter of up to-the-moment tendencies of European musicology, but also the elaborator and promoter of some innovative studies.
The scientific studies of V. Hoshovsky has became the notable contribution in all-Ukrainian and European musical culture.

Keywords: Volodymyr Hoshovskyi, ethnography, ethnomusicology, music dialectology, Slavic studies, cybernetic ethnomusicology.
Bohdan Lukaniuk
From the Musical History of Liberation Songs. Problem Essays   PDF
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Liberation song is a special genre of mass oral and writing art which expresses the spirit of protest, the people's struggle against oppression, their rights of freedom, for their social, national, and universal rights, and it is an effective means of orientation and organizing the vast majority of society. Such a song is usually attributed to an author if necessary, and, having become widespread and even often worldwide, it is adopted into folklore. Such songs can also to some extent be modified due to the influence of public artistic thinking. Therefore its theory, history and practice create apparent ethnomusicological research interest.

The proposed problem essays discuss the history of five popular Ukrainian (or those of countries closely related to Ukraine) liberation songs – older and newer, both in terms of appearing during the last three centuries (1654–1921), and in musical and poetic style. According to their international significance, their original sources, and the way evolutions are revealed, most are still little known or completely unknown. These mostly debatable attempts to resolve the issues require further studies, which are sure to open more than a few fascinating pages in the country's past.

This issue of "Ethnomusic" includes the following three essays (previously see in the 17 issue of the yearbook.

Keywords: liberation song, Ukraine, primary sources, musical history, ways of evolution.
Mátyás Bolya
Ai-supported processing of Handwritten transcriptions for hungarian Folk songs in a digital environment   PDF
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The research focuses on creating an AI-supported Digital Research Environment (DRE) that helps analysing and systematizing folk music tunes with the help of the latest information theory and database management results. The study may be extended to the entire source material accumulated by researchers so far, thus integrating Hungarian ethnomusicology results of the last hundred years. In this way, new dimensions of structural analysis open up and a large amount of information can be processed that already exceeds the limits of human musical memory.

Previous computerized music analysis experiments in Hungary have inadequately defined the role of artificial intelligence. In our case, the AI-supported digital environment that is the subject of the research does not work independently, because the researcher's scientifically abstract thinking, preferences, and the recognition of characteristic melodic elements cannot yet be replaced by computer data processing.

Crucial goal of the research is to precisely define the researcher's role in musical data processing. Thus the attitude of researchers rejecting software support may 1 The institute previously belonged to the Hungarian Academy of Science, currently it belongs to the ELKH (Eötvös Lóránd Research Network). 2 List of publications: MTMT. Hungarian Scientific Bibliography. URL: https:// (Access: 23.10.2022). 66 change in favour of actually using our digital framework. For the first time in Hungarian folk music research history, a detailed and documented digital research environment can be created, integrating the useful, relevant software tools. We can map out data entry problems and define the standard format of the musical data suitable for mass input and analysis. If possible, we will replace the previously widely used optional data with scalable data to have a broader range of parametrization and search options, and their free combination allows us to study new scientific models. With DRE, the validity range of the previous scientific musical classification can be more precisely specified and the processing as well as classification of unreported melodies and the process of type creating can be significantly accelerated.

The most significant debate in the previous research has been the dataset specification of analyses. I am convinced that only similarly processed tune-data-elements can be compared, so one of the most critical tasks is to determine the input data's standard format and information density. As a first step, the digital conversion of the musical manuscript needs to be solved. International research has mainly led to results in the recognition of printed music, some of which can be used in the project, but many new developments are also needed.

Keywords: AI-supported Digital Research Environment (DRE), Optical Music Recognition (OMR), Musical Manuscripts, Hungarian Folk Songs, scientific musical classification, ethnomusicology, digital archives, folklore database.
Joanna Surma
Nomenclature of the traditional violin repertoire based on the instrumental practice of selected violinists from Central Poland   PDF
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Mazurkas and oberekas were the main musical genres performed in Central Poland until World War I by traditional musical groups consisted initially of a violinist and a drummer. Depending on the sub-region, these two terms were used interchangeably, sometimes they were considered as two different genres, and sometimes confused – for example, in Powiśle, instrumental mazurkas were called "wędrowce" (sing. "wędrowiec"), "podróżniaki" (sing. "podróżniak) or "światowce" (sing. "światowiec"), while in many villages near Radom, the term mazurka did not occur at all. The third commonly performed musical genre before World War I was the polka. In the interwar period and in the first years after World War II, the traditional repertoire significantly expanded to include waltzes, sztajerki (sing. sztajer or sztajerek) and tangos. The article deals with the issue of muscial genres nomenclature performed by selected violinists from Central Poland, focusing on four figures associated with the traditional violin music of the Radom region: Stanisław Lewandowski (Brogowa, b. 1933), Jan Skretowski (Borowina, b. 1941), Adam Tarnowski (Domaniów, b. 1945) and Zdzisław Kwapiński (b. in 1951 in Szymanów, from 1984 residing in Przytyk, and from the late 1980s in Radom). Another important issue is the nomenclature of single musical works performed by the aforesaid violinists, what reveals their creativity as well as the rural way of perceiving music.

Keywords: mazurka, oberek, polka, violin, violin music, Central Poland.
Iryna Klymenko
Macroareal Markers Of Ritual-Song Traditions Of Galicia And Carpathia   PDF
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The article examines a number of melo-typological features that appeared on the melogeographic maps of Ukraine as factors of the separation of the southwestern segment of the Ukrainian ethnic territory (UET). This segment is delineated in the article with the conventional name ‹Carpathian-Galician Melomassif› (KGM).

The criteria for distinguishing KGM became ritual melodies, the age of which is considered quite respectable – there are indirect evidences of the pre-Christian origin of many types of song compositions (meloforms, defined primarily by their rhythmic patterns and corresponding verse (syllabic) formulas). In fact, their areas, which appeared during the mapping of numerous large arrays of songs, are evidence of them – after all, these areas are partially correlated with archaeological cultures of distant times (from the beginning of the 1st millennium AD), so this direction of research can be described by the expression "musical archeology". About 60,000 recordings of ritual melodies of Ukrainians and neighboring ethnic groups (Belarusians, Poles, Lithuanians) were used to build the maps. 132 maps were published as a separate Atlas (Klymenko, I., Ritual Melodies of the Ukrainians in the Context of the SlavicBaltic Early Traditional Melomassif: Typology and Geography. Kyiv, 2020. Vol. 2: Atlas. 100 pp. + DVD.

The zone ‹Galicia + Carpathia› is distinguished as a separate ritual-song space according to two types of parameters: positive (А) and negative (B). These are the following positions:

А1 – meloforms with truly "Galician" arrays (individual types of winter songs (with a spondeic base ‹V*44; Р43 43 ›); a macrogroup of spring melodies with a ‹V446› base; Easter (ranciuvalni) songs; birth (christening) songs of various types);

A2 – meloforms with arrays that go beyond the boundaries of the zone ‹Galicia + Carpathia›, but in the Galician repertoire they are statistically dominant, so the KGM territory can be considered their core (carols with verse bases ‹V*443›, ‹V553›, shchedrivky-melankuvannia ‹V*442 ›; wedding, spring and harvest with a base ‹V7›; numerous game spring songs of the «character» type and other melo-forms);

A3 – meloforms with very large polyethnic arrays, which within the KGM limits have distinctive typological or areal «behavior» (winter songs of the ‹V55,р4› macrofamily; wedding macrotype of the ‹V*53› model);

A4 – specific techniques of rhythmic and compositional variation, specific to the KGM sector (the technique of adding the syllables; the technique of duplicating small syllabic groups);

B – «negative» markers: the absence in Galicia and the Carpathians of certain genres and meloforms characteristic of the neighboring regions – Central and Eastern Podillia and Volyn (Kupalo rites and songs; several forms of wedding songs, in particular, songs of the tirade type).

On the other hand, a series of melotypological factors have been established that show the belonging of the KGM zone to the great "cultural continent of the Ukrainian Right Bank" – these are markers of group C (shedrivkas ‹V442 › with an ascending Ionic figure; spring songs with bases ‹V*442 ›, ‹V4332 ›; harvest and wedding songs with the base ‹V7› and other meloforms).

In advance, we can say that "separation" factors (markers of groups A and B) look more powerful than integration factors (markers of group C). The "separation" line of the KGM zone in the east passes between the Seret and Zbruch rivers, in the north – along the line below Gorokhiv (Sokal – Radekhiv – Ikva river), in the west and south – almost coincides with the corresponding borders of the UET. The maps also show significant differences within the specified region, which allow the following sectors to be separated in KGM:

(a) the mountain part of the Carpathians: their northern slopes and the foothills;

(b) southern slopes of the Carpathians (Transcarpathia);

(c) the upper Dniester zone;

(d) sector of the right bank of the Dniester (to the watershed with the Western Bug and Prypiat basins).

Keywords: musical folklore of Ukrainians, Carpathians, Galicia, ritual melodies, modeling of musical forms, melotypology, morphology, mapping, arrays of ancient cultures, musical archeology.
Kateryna Kundush
Typology of wedding melodies of the village Ostriv, Dubno region, Rivne area   PDF
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The article offers studying of the wedding music culture in the village Ostriv of Central Volhyn. The main wedding rites are characterised retrospectively. The music repertoire consists of 112 vocal melodies, recorded by the author from old singers' individual performance in non-rituals conditions and during the real wedding action. The methodological work of Lviv ethnomusicologist Bohdan Lukanyuk „Melotypology ladkankas and songs (based on West Polissya and West Volhyn)" are used for determining of melotypology of the songs. It was defined the main types are ladkankas, songs and pryspivkas.

Keywords: Central Volhyn, Dubno region, Ostriv, vocal folklore, wedding cycle, melotypology.
Lina Dobrianska
Protocol of discussion of open lessons by Volodymyr Hoshovsky   PDF
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Lviv archives contain a lot of valuable materials that shed light on the history of the development of musical-folkloristic studies in Halychyna. One of such documents is the Protocol of one of the meetings of the Musicology Department of the Lviv Conservatory dated January 18, 1966 (hereinafter referred to as the Protocol) below. It is interesting because it contains a transcript of a detailed discussion of two open lessons by Volodymyr Hoshovsky on the subject "Folk music".

This large document, covering 9 full pages of typescript, for a long time remained the main source of information about the pedagogical activity of the scientist in 1961–1969. This branch of V. Hoshovsky's activity is quite well covered in ethnomusicological literature, especially thanks to the recent publication of the student lecture notes of course by V. Hoshovsky from "Folk music". However, the appearance of this source does not detract from the information value of the Protocol. Although it discusses the details of only two lessons, this document simultaneously demonstrates not only the "what", but also the "how" V. Hoshovsky taught, how the students perceived the material, and, importantly, how his colleagues present in open classes evaluated the work of the scientist. It is through their flattering or critical statements that one can see the picture of the contemporary state of ethnomusical science and pedagogy, as well as the difficult socio-political context in which V. Hoshovsky had to work.

The protocol contains many interesting and diverse details related to both the material delivered at the lectures and the urgent problems of teaching folk music disciplines of that time, such as: insufficient hours, lack of a textbook, etc. In general, this archival source has not only significant scientific and methodological value for a wide range of ethnomusicologists – theorists and historians of musical folkloristics, but also is of considerable interest as a realistic document of its era.

The document is submitted in full, preserving all linguistic and stylistic features and punctuation of the original with minor editorial appendices in the latches. On the right is the page number of the manuscript.

Keywords: Volodymyr Hoshovskyy, Stanislav Liudkevych, teaching folk music disciplines, Lviv Conservatory.
Larysa Lukashenko
Folklorism: Program for music universities (III–IV accreditation levels) from specialty No. 025 "Musical Art" (educational and qualification level "Bachelor")   PDF
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"Musical folklore" is one of the main disciplines of training all student's specializations in music vocational colleges, which aim to build respect for the national heritage of oral culture, to teach basic theoretical knowledge and practical experience of singing Ukrainian folk songs.

The program is designed to update the existing standard program of 2011. The explanatory note focuses on the goals, objectives and teaching methods as well as expected results and guidelines. There are 4 sections in the Course plan: 1) folklore and folkloristics (basic concepts, classifications, methods and history of collection); 2) calendar and ritual music folklore; 3) family and ritual music folklore; 4) non-ritual music folklore. The program contains of a set of practical classes, a short description of the course and a list of educational and methodical literature that also includes modern publications, notations, discography and Internet resources.

Based on the rich experience of teaching musical folklore, the author proposes to use innovative teaching methods, such as including pieces of regional folklore, focus on local stylistic musical features, involving students to participate in folklore expeditions, encouraging the performing fragments of folk rites, and singing in the folk style etc.

Keywords: authentic musical folklore, folk music genres, folk songs, folk instruments, musical folkloristics, musical and folkloristic expeditions.
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