Ethnomusic. Lviv, 2021. Volume 17: A collection of scientific articles and materials devoted to 150th anniversary of Lesya Ukrainka. Ed. Larysa Lukashenko. 252 p. PDF

The seveteenth yearbook "Ethnomusic" contains scientific articles by researchers from Ukraine and Poland, covering a wide range of issues in various fields of history and theory of musical folklore. The collection also includes works on pedagogy, rare newly found archival materials, as well as reviews, reports and chronicles for 2021.
From editor
Lina Dobrianska
Sound Recording of Lesya Ukrainka's Voice: History of Research and Reconstruction   PDF
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This article is dedicated to the phonograph recording of the ballad "Oh, the Cossack came from Ukraina", which was most likely recorded in 1908 by Lesya Ukrainka. The recording is studied in a broad historical context, covering three time periods: the beginning of the century, when the song was recorded on a phonograph; the early 1970s – the time of "discovering" the song on a wax cylinder, the first restoration and publication of the result; and the latest, with rerestoration and placing the recovered audio file on the Internet. Special attention is paid to the role of Lviv ethnomusicologist Yuriy Slyvynsky in this story, who found the recording, proposed a hypothesis about the poetess's voice and supported his assumption with strong evidence. This research is written based on published and archival materials (including personal archive of Slyvynsky) as well as the analysis of all currently available audio versions of the recording. It examines the Yuriy Slyvynsky 's arguments and offers some new remarks to confirm his hypothesis.

It is common knowledge that in the autumn of 1908 in Yalta, Lesya Ukrainka and Klyment Kvitka recorded the performance of kobzar Hnat Honcharenko on a phonograph. This event was a part of a project initiated by the Kvitka family to preserve the repertoire of Ukrainian kobzars and was implemented mainly by Filaret Kolessa. During the phonograph recording of H. Honcharenko's repertoire, most likely, Lesya Ukrainka herself sang a Ukrainian folk ballad about "Zvedenitsa" to test the recording process. The cylinder together with other phonocylinders, where the performances of H. Honcharenko were recorded, were sent to Lviv. The performances of "Dumas" were later transcribed by Filaret Kolessa.

60 years later Yuriy Slyvynsky, whilst analyzing the recordings, discovered that there is one damaged fragment where female singing could be heard. In the notes accompanying the cylinders, Lesya Ukrainka emphasized that there is some "sample" (test) at the beginning of the cylinder. The song that can be heard on the phonogram is almost identical to the transcription of the same song written by K. Kvitka from the poetess. And, finally, the decisive proof of Yuriy Slyvynsky assures that there are no options other than that of the Lesya Ukrainka's voice. In 1970, a recording of Lesya Ukrainka's voice and other phonocylinders with Dumas records were restored in Moscow and, at the end of the year, the materials were published on a gramophone record.

A new wave of interest in the recording of Lesya Ukrainka's voice arose on the eve of the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the poetess. In 2014 a completely new restoration of the song, as well as records of the kobzars performing from the collection of wax cylinders of F. Kolessa, became widely available on Wikimedia.

The current version of the audio recording raises new questions that cannot be answered accurately at this time. Further reading of information from the cylinder and reconstruction should help to resolve the issue. Despite it being impossible to offer unconditional proof of the authenticity of Lesya Ukrainka's voice, even imperfect restorations of the record and their analytical study do not give any reason to doubt the plausibility of the hypothesis of Yu. Slyvynsky.

Keywords: Lesya Ukrainka, Klyment Kvitka, Filaret Kolessa, Yuriy Slyvynsky, Ukrainian Duma Phonography Project, restoration of wax cylinders.
Olena Shevchuk
Anna Koropnichenko
The Christmas Canticle: on Attributive Terminology   PDF
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The authors deal with the unique genre of Ukrainian folk oral song tradition of the 19th century and beyond – special Christmas carols, textual genesis which is traced to Baroque professional poetry or "song poetry". The author's aim is to find and systematize the genre titles of these carols as a part of spiritual poetry system. Historical genre attributions are gathered both in hand-written and published service-books, song collections (West European, Latin, Polish, Czech, Ukrainian), scholars' works, as well as in contemporary traditional folk terminology. The author's objective is to choose and present a more accurate definition of orally transmitted Ukrainian Christmas carols of Baroque written origin. This result should help to differentiate them from other Ukrainian folk songs clusters, including ancient non-Christian carols.

More than 30 related definitions (with identical, close, or variant meaning) were found in Baroque song collections and scientists' works. The most widespread is the general genre-title song (pisnia)+ adjective: 'pisnia dukhovna' (spiritual), 'pisnia nabozhna / pobozhna' (pious, devotional), 'pisnia blahohoviyna' (reverential), 'pisnia khrystyianska' (Christian), 'pisnia tserkovna' (ecclesiastic, Kirchenlied). Scientific attributions are 'pisnia relihiyna' (religious), also 'paraliturhiyna' (paraliturgical), 'barokova' (Baroque), 'knyzhna' (book) songs.

Other well-known genre-titles of the 17th–18th centuries spiritual songs are (1) 'psalm /psal'm / psal'ma', (2) 'dukhovnyi stich' (spiritual verse) and (3) canticle ('kant'). Three terms of the psalm-group (1), although similar, clearly differ within Slavic traditions, but their orthographic similarity often provokes misunderstanding. The word 'psalm' which is often found in the titles of Polish Baroque spiritual song-collections, is well-known in the East-Slavic territories, and means both the original Biblical verse and, at the same time, its poetic translations, and paraphrases. The East-Slavic variation 'psal'm' (псальм masc. singular; psal'my plural) is a term which exactly matches the Polish pronunciation of 'psalm'. The long history of this terminological variation began from the 1670th in Moscowia and, due to Polish influence, 'psal'm' seems to be the only genre-name of written spiritual songs with different content in Russian songbooks (including Ukrainian Christmas carols, another festive or repentant Baroque songs contained within).

On the other hand, 'psal'ma' (псальмa fem. singular, psal'my plural) distinguishes the separate genre name of Baroque spiritual songs (of strictly defined meaning), adopted in Ukrainian and Byelorussian folk oral tradition since the 19th century. Scholars have established that, firstly, Ukrainian psal'ma is mostly moralizing, repentant, and sometimes mournful, especially if it's performed during the Great Lent period. Secondly, it was mostly sung solo by hurdy-gurdy / kobza player with their own accompaniment (O. Bohdanova). However, few psal'mas, although performed during the Christmas period, tend to keep the particular attribution psal`ma, while Christmas Carols-Cant(icle)s have another meaning and stylistic peculiarities.

'Dukhovnyi stikch' is a spiritual verse of medieval origin and oral transmission, which encompasses a moralizing topic and is considered to be one of the historical sources of Ukrainian psal'ma. Unlike Ukrainian spiritual verses, Russian ones have been notated by neumes (kriuki) system in Russian orthodox znamenny 17th–21st centuries books (since 18th century, mostly by Old-Believers), and don't share many common traits with Baroque psal`mas in Ukrainian staff-notated songbooks and those in folk transmission. That is why both these genre-titles are not proposed to attribute Ukrainian festal Christmas Carols.

Finally, the Ukrainian professional song genre 'кант' (which is usually transcribed by Ukrainian scholars as 'kant') has a long history. This term, being used in Ukrainian professional Baroque poetry of the 1630s, is clearly derived both from Latinisms Cantus, Cantico (chant, song) and the 17th century Polish titles Kantyczky, Kantyky (Polish Baroque canticles books). Later, the term кант meant a special canticle with a three-part texture where two upper voices form so called "third bandeau" (third parallelism), while bass is a harmonically separated functional voice. Scholars (Yu. Medvedyk and others) have emphasized that Ukrainian spiritual canticle of this textural type had been written by staff notation in 1649 manuscript. Although this style of three-part professional chanting seems to have existed since early 17th century, it is interesting that songs of this type were not attributed as 'кант', either in this source or in later Ukrainian song books. The term 'кант' has been used since the 18th century, mostly in Russia to mark secular, encomium (panegyric) songs of the same textural structure.

During the 19th century the popular written Ukrainian Baroque songs were adopted into Ukrainian oral folk music, where their three-part base was conserved and creatively developed in different ethnic loci, being either increased somewhere to 4-parts or reduced to 2-parts texture but always clearly demonstrating its stylistic origin. The three part textural origin of these canticles differs from other Ukrainian oral song clusters, including ancient non-Christian carols. Thus, authors prefer to choose the term 'кант' to attribute adopted Ukrainian folk oral Christmas carols of Baroque written origin.

Keywords: Baroque poetry, spiritual song, 'psal'ma' (folk psalm), church carol, Christmas canticle, three-part texture, polyonymy.
Bohdan Lukaniuk
From the Musical History of Liberation Songs. Problem Essays   PDF
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Liberation song is a special genre of mass oral and writing art which expresses the spirit of protest, the people's struggle against oppression, their rights of freedom, for their social, national, and universal rights, and it is an effective means of orientation and organizing the vast majority of society. Such a song is usually attributed to an author if necessary, and, having become widespread and even often worldwide, it is adopted into folklore. Such songs can also to some extent be modified due to the influence of public artistic thinking. Therefore its theory, history and practice create apparent ethnomusicological research interest.

The proposed problem essays discuss the history of five popular Ukrainian (or those of countries closely related to Ukraine) liberation songs – older and newer, both in terms of appearing during the last three centuries (1654–1921), and in musical and poetic style. According to their international significance, their original sources, and the way evolutions are revealed, most are still little known or completely unknown. These mostly debatable attempts to resolve the issues require further studies, which are sure to open more than a few fascinating pages in the country's past.

This issue of "Ethnomusic" includes an introductory survey and the first two essays, the next three will appear in the next issue of the yearbook.

Keywords: liberation song, Ukraine, primary sources, musical history, ways of evolution.
Beata Maksymiuk-Pacek
Wedding in the Descriptions of Documentarians from Podlasie   PDF
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The wedding ceremony is a family rite founded on rich traditions formed over centuries. It has always aroused the interest of researchers, and that is reflected in the numerous papers which discuss various aspects related to wedding rituals including the entire rite, song repertoire, wedding props, and the functions of characters participating in the wedding, etc.

Podlasie is a border region. For centuries it has been a gateway between the ethnographic areas of Poland, Lithuania and Ruthenia. The southern part of Podlasie, which is the subject of the article, is the area of the former Biała Podlaskie Voivodeship. The people inhabiting this area were often united during family and annual ceremonies, of which weddings were considered one of the most important.

The wedding rituals of southern Podliasia have been described in the publications of many researchers. In proposed articles, attention will be focused on less known works describing the wedding ceremonies from this region, which have never been fully documented in print. This material describes the wedding ceremonies of Catholic and Orthodox people living in villages in the vicinity of Biała Podlaska, Wola Osowińska and Hanna, compiled by Jan Ignaciuk ("Podlasie Wedding – a Scenic Arrangement of a Wedding Rite of the Population of Ukrainian Origin in the Biała Podl. Province"), Aleksander Oleszczuk ("Podlasie Wedding Ritual in Scenic Arrangement") and Wacław Tuwalski ("A Wedding in Wola Ossowinska 100 Years Ago"). The authors were genuine folklorists united by a love of their homeland and of the local folk culture. Thanks to education, they were aware of the importance of preserving and consolidating the traditions with which they had grown up. Each of them developed wedding show scenarios, which became a valuable source of knowledge for local theater groups, rural housewives' clubs or regional societies.

Following the documentarians descriptions of local wedding traditions, the proposed article will encompass topics such as wedding stages, characters and props (using regional terminology).e. The work discusses the regional features of the wedding ritual which include: the preparation of the wedding ceremony and regional terminology (dywosnuby, rajko, pasierby, posah etc). The material clearly demonstrates the ethnic diversity of the area and its rich traditions.

The cited works undoubtedly complement the research on wedding rituals from southern Podlasie. They are valuable documentary material which comprehensively describe the wedding ritual as written by authentic performers, who were wedding participants from Zabłocie, Matiaszówka, Hanna, Janówka, Bokinka Pańska, Krasówka, Dokudowo, Międzylesie, Kolembrody, Wola Osowińska, as well as other villages.

Keywords: wedding rite, southern Podlasie, cultural borderland, Aleksander Oleszczuk, Jan Ignaciuk, Wacław Tuwalski, small homeland, tradition.
Yarema Pavliv
Retrospective View of the Performance of Kolomyika Melodies in the Dance Hutsulka by Fiddlers of the Kosmach-Brustury Tradition  # nbsp;PDF
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The proposed article is devoted to the exploration of the kolomyika melodies of the dance Hutsulka in terms of musical textological, ethnomusicological, and performance parameters.

Based on the transcriptions of O. Kolberg, F. Kolessa, S. Merchynsky, I. Matsievsky, as well as the author of the article, a comparative analysis of the kolomyika themes "for dancing", recorded from traditional fiddlers of the Galician Hutsul region and the foothill part of Pokuttia, has been carried out.

The common basis of the melodic framework of ancient canonical samples of kolomyika melodies "for singing" and "for dancing" has been established (1);
the layer of newer canonical kolomyika melodies "for dancing" with the kozachok like organization of the monodic texture in terms of the rhythm formula has been defined (2).

The layer of canonized highly virtuoso kolomyika themes of Hutsulka derived from ancient themes and reflecting the specific interpretive style of musicians as representatives of certain local traditions has been analyzed.

It turns out that the main impetus for the evolution of musical language in the interpretation of Hutsulka by fiddlers of the Kosmach Brustury tradition of the XX century was the creative and ethnopedagogical activity of the luminary, Kosmach fiddler Vasyl Vardzaruk "Yacobyshyn" (1858–1941).

Keywords: dance melodies, kolomyika structure, hutsulka, interpretive stylistics, folk traditional fiddlers, Kosmach, Shepit, Brustury, instrumental music.
Viktor Levytskyi
Instrumental Accompaniment to the Ritual Dance "Serben" in the Village of Chortovets in the Pokuttia area of Dnister   PDF
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The dance called "serben" is a living tradition of Chortovets village, which is situated in Ivano-Frankivsk region of Ukraine. Other typical local names of it are "serpen", "serbyn", "sverbyn". It is danced during Easter by almost all male peasants. Men form a line holding each other's hands and dance around the church. After that, they make a circle around women who are singing traditional Easter songs. Men also sing songs while dancing. Usually they start with the ballad about the "Sister-Poisoner", where the main character's name is Serben. Even though a name from the ballad lyrics appears in the dance title, the dances can have different origins, since this ballad is not the only song that can be sung with a dance.

The ritual itself, and its music accompaniment, was researched in the 19th century by Oskar Kolberg. At this time the dance was performed in many villages besides Chortovets. The area it spread can be roughly shown as a triangle outlined by the towns of Kolomyia, Sniatyn and Horodenka. In each village the tune of "serben" was different. In Chortovets it was played with fiddle and drum.

Since this time the tradition has gradually changed. Expeditions and archive material shows that after the World War II "serben" was always played with a flute called "sopivka". It is an open flute with 6 finger holes and without a built-in whistle. Its shape is very similar to the Hutsul frilka. Sound production in this type of flute is much more difficult compared to closed ones, so this could be one of the reasons why the instrument disappeared in Chortovets after 1990's.

Even though sopivka isn't used in Pokuttia nowadays, the fact it was played there for many years raises a question as to whether it was a local traditional instrument, or one that could have been brought from the Hutsul region. Oskar Kolberg found flutes in Pokuttia being used in tradition ensembles as well as a solo pastoral instrument. We don't know exactly if those instruments had a built-in whistle, but the ones found in Yaseniv-Pilnyi were played with drone singing of the player. That technique is primarily used with open flutes. In photographs from Chortovets dated from 1947 till 1970's we can clearly see open flutes. In audio recordings from Chorovets made in 1970, we can hear sopivka playing wedding tunes and song melodies. The list of existing sources shows that the area of open flutes in Ukraine is much bigger than just Hutsul region, and further research is needed to establish the exact borders.

Keywords: Chortovets, Pokuttia area of Dnister, ritual dance "serben", instrumental accompaniment, open flute aerophones.
Vira Madyar-Novak
Musical folklore: Program for Music Vocational Colleges (I-II levels of accreditation) in the specialty № 025 "Musical Artˮ, all musical performance specializations   PDF
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"Musical folklore" is one of the main disciplines of training all student's specializations in music vocational colleges, which aim to build respect for the national heritage of oral culture, to teach basic theoretical knowledge and practical experience of singing Ukrainian folk songs.

The program is designed to update the existing standard program of 2011. The explanatory note focuses on the goals, objectives and teaching methods as well as expected results and guidelines. There are 4 sections in the Course plan: 1) folklore and folkloristics (basic concepts, classifications, methods and history of collection); 2) calendar and ritual music folklore; 3) family and ritual music folklore; 4) non-ritual music folklore. The program contains of a set of practical classes, a short description of the course and a list of educational and methodical literature that also includes modern publications, notations, discography and Internet resources.

Based on the rich experience of teaching musical folklore, the author proposes to use innovative teaching methods, such as including pieces of regional folklore, focus on local stylistic musical features, involving students to participate in folklore expeditions, encouraging the performing fragments of folk rites, and singing in the folk style etc.

Keywords: authentic musical folklore, folk music genres, folk songs, folk instruments, musical folkloristics, musical and folkloristic expeditions.
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