Ethnomusic. Lviv, 2023. Volume 19: A collection of scientific articles and materials in honor of the anniversary of Bohdan Yaremko. Ed. Victoriia Yarmola. 264 p. PDF

The nineteenth yearbook "Ethnomusic" contains articles by Ukrainian, Polish and Nigerian researchers, that cover a wide range of topics in various fields of history and theory of musical folklore. The collection also presents works on pedagogy, as well as reviews, reports and chronicle for 2023.
From editor
Nadiya Suprun-Yaremko
Reflections on the Lived, Endured, Overcome... (for the 80th birthday of Bohdan Yaremko)   PDF
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The article outlined the life path of Professor Bohdan Ivanovych Yaremkо as a researcher of traditional Hutsul and Boyko panpipe-type instruments, a performer, an innovative educator in high school, and a representative of Ukrainian and European organological science. After graduating his studies at the Lviv Conservatory in the clarinet class, Yaremkо began his career in the Department of Wind Instruments of the Rivne Art University. Over the 41 years of his work at this institution, B. Yaremkо evolved as a panpipe ("sopilka") music performer and, from 1977 onwards, as a researcher of Hutsul and Boyko traditional music. From 1979, he also became the founder of the "sopilka" class. In the article identified key milestones in the performance activities of Yaremkо's panpipe class students, who, in different years, became laureates and diploma winners of international, national, regional competitions, and festivals, leaving a lasting impact on their artistic careers. A significant result of B. Yaremkо's research activity, involving meticulous transcription work, systematic folklore expeditions mainly in the Carpathian region, creative interactions with folk musicians and folklore experts at various scientific events, and laboratory experiments, is his doctoral dissertation "The Role of Performance in the Formation of Musical Tradition (based on the material of Ukrainian sopilka music of the Carpathians)" and the publication of several dozen scientific articles and three study books: "Utorop Sopilka Improvisations", "Boyko Sopilka Music", and "Ethnoorganology". In the article is characterized the final period of B. Yaremkо's work in Rivne, marked by the same circle of scientific interests, as evidenced by over 20 publications dedicated to "sopilka", violin, and "trembita" themes. From 2013, the Lviv period of B. Yaremkо's career began, associated with his work at the T. Shevchenko Kremenets Regional Humanities and Pedagogical Academy and the publication of the monograph "Sopilka Music of the Hutsuls", numerous scientific articles, and participation in online scientific conferences.

Keywords: Bohdan Yaremko, scientist, performance, pedagogy, publications, study books, panpipe (sopilka) traditional music, transcriptions, sopilka, folk musicians.
Iryna Fedun
The Concept of Professionalism in Ukrainian Traditional Ensemble Instrumental Music   PDF
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The term "musical professionalism" is used not only for written academic European music, but also for world oral traditions and is primarily related to the level of skill and social status of the performers.

In the context of Ukrainian traditional culture, there are three groups of professional musicians:

1) Wandering minstrels known as "kobzari" and "lirnyky" (lute "kobza" and hurdy-gurdy players) who, by the mid-20th century, formed professional organizations with their own hierarchy and rules. Their repertoire mainly consisted of epic songs of historical, religious, or moralistic nature.

2) Musicians-shepherds, primarily playing wind instruments, for whom music was an integral part of their pastoral activities, often performing signaling melodies.

3) So-called "trojisti muzyky", musicians who formed ensembles to provide music for wedding ceremonies, dances, and other events.

The kobzari and lirnyky's musical culture has mostly lost its direct oral transmission and exists today mainly in reconstructed forms. Equally, with the evolution of their profession, musicians-shepherds moved to the status of amateur performers. Therefore, ensemble musicians remained the only professional folk musicians who represent the current state of development of Ukrainian traditional instrumental music.

The criteria of folklore professionalism depend on the specifics and needs of certain environments. Despite this, there are several attempts to define universal signs of traditional professionalism. But criteria of professionalism, which are suitable for ones cultures, are not quite suitable for others and change not only in space, but also in time.

Based on the predecessors' experience, as well as numerous own field studies, the author defines the following criteria for the Ukrainian professional folk ensemble musicians. These include: natural talent, elements of the educational process, perfect mastery of one or more instruments, the ability to make or fix them, publicity and payment for the playing, mandatory participation in rituals and entertainment of their environment, knowledge of their repertoire, constant performing practice and improvement, professional terminology, high competition between musicians, association in instrumental (wedding) bands.

So, each group of folk performers had its own standards of professionalism. Folk professional musicians are the creators, bearers, masters, innovators, and "promoters" of instrumental culture, gifted and vibrant personalities who shape the future of their tradition.

Keywords: folk instrumental music, professional folk musicians, "trojisti muzyky", criteria for traditional musical professionalism.
Yarema Pavliv
The “Shepit hutsulka" by the "Palahniuk" Brothers: Structure, Dramaturgy, Performance Style   PDF
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The article is devoted to the investigation of the performance version of "Hutsulka", audio-recorded in 2007 by the band of the "Palahniuks" brothers from the village of Shepit of Kosiv district, Ivano-Frankivsk region. The musical-textological and performance analyzes of the piece were carried out on the basis of the violin part transcribed by the author of the article from the bandmaster Yuriy Danyshchuk "Palahniuk" (b. 1951). The history of the formation of the most common compositional dance model in the Kosmach-Brustury tradition in the last quarter of the 20th – the first quarter of the 21st centuries is traced. It was found that this model served as the basis for Yu. Danyshchuk's performance of a specific version of "Hutsulka". Features of the structure and dramaturgical development of the work have been revealed, among which there are canonical traditional and individually stylistic ones. The consideration of the performance style of the band is based on the ethnophonic investigation of the violinist manner of playing, and the textural analysis of the common sound of the band. The purpose of the texture analysis is to determine the role of the violinist, cymbal player and tambourine player in the creative tandem of the three Danyschuk brothers "Palahniuks".

The version considered in the article is not as extended as possible, because it was not performed in the context of musical tradition, but for recording to represent the most canonical melodies of the dance. Its musical form is through-and-through with signs of tripartiteness and tonal reprise. The dramaturgy of the piece can be traced at the compositional (tonal and tessitura movements, the logic of the sequence of themes) and performance style (tempo, rhythmic organization, manners of articulation and ornamentation, dynamics, timbre, character of sound) levels.

The "Palahniuk" brothers recreated a dramaturgical concept through the prism of their interpretation. The creative ideas of the violinist Yuriy Danyshchuk, who "led the band", were immediately supported by his brothers – a cymbalist Mykola Danyshchuk and a tambourine player Mykhailo Danyshchuk. The synergetic effect of the playing of the three "Palahniuk" brothers is exceptionally strong. It arises due to the perfect ensemble coherence of the participants, based on a deep understanding of the piece, the emotional compatibility of the musicians, common dramaturgical and aesthetic style ideas. "Palahniuks" brothers played a significant role in the preservation, transmission and performance evolution of the traditional repertoire of the Kosmach-Brustury region. Their creative achievements in the genre "Hutsulka" were adopted and developed by talented musicians of the younger and youngest generations.

Keywords: musical folkloristic, traditional instrumental music, "Hutsulka" (a type of dance), musical form, interpretation, musical-performing style, wedding ensemble, Kosmach, Shepit.
Joanna Surma
Theoretical and aesthetic thinking of Polish traditional violinists   PDF
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Since the end of the 19th century, the violin has become one of the most widespread instruments in traditional culture of Polish countryside. Violinists were often the spiritus movens of the musical life of their villages, their musical activity accompanied rural communities in the most crucial moments of social and family life. Despite ethnomusicological research carried out actively in Poland since the 1950s focused on documenting and reconstructing the traditional music life of the Polish countryside, little has been written so far about the theoretical and aesthetic thinking of Polish traditional violinists.

The objective of the article is to look into the thought processes developed by violinists active in the Polish countryside before and after The Second World War. The article attempts to show ways of understanding musical phenomena and creating terminology by violinists. The conclusions are based on field research conducted by me in 2020–2021 in Central Poland and on the literature on the subject.

Keywords: violin, violin music, band, Musical Folklore Collecting Campaign.
Victoriia Yarmola
Musical Horns in Traditional Musical Culture of Western Polissia   PDF
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The function, and methods of producing signal horns in Western Ukrainian Polissia are characterized in this article for the first time. The research is based mainly on author's own expedition records, as well as rare documents from the archive of Oleksa Oshurkevych and other published sources.

In traditional Western Polissian culture, the horn as a musical instrument was an integral attribute of the shepherds' musical traditions, the same as hunters' use. The following types of horns are distinguished according to their purpose: signal or entertainment. The first ones were used as signal instruments, which arose from the needs of communication between shepherds in livestock managing; the second were used mainly for esthetic pleasure and entertainment. The horns are categorized into mouthpiece-less, mouthpiece and reed horns, as well as by the absence or presence of playing holes. The instrument has a hollow form of the natural horn of an ox, bull, ram, or occasionally a cow, into which shepherds could insert a wooden mouthpiece or a reed whistle. Usually, it was possible to produce only one sound on a shepherd's horn, which determined the main tone of the instrument, and the types of sounds were played differently from each other in rhythm.

A single rare sample of the horn, which played a purely entertaining function in Polissian life, had a more complex design and, unlike the signal horns, it had a wide range of sounds which allowed performing various songs to accompany dances. In Polissian everyday life, the horn was used to perform dance music, mainly in solo, less often accompanied by song lyrics. Only with the development of performing art, this instrument became actively used in instrumental.

It is difficult to prove how autochthonal is this musical instrument due to the narrow area of distribution, the same as to describe the tradition of the playing. Therefore, this topic needs further detailed study, as well as the research of other musical instruments function, in particular the trumpets, which were also an integral part not only of the shepherd's life, but also other farmers' musical traditions.

Keywords: horns, signal music, shepherds' musical traditions, Western Polissia.
Olha Kolomyyets
"Memory of the World": The Sound Recordings of Ukrainians from WWI Prisoner-of-War Camps in Germany by the Prussian Phonographic Commission from the Collections of the Berlin Phonogram Archive (Factographic Aspects)   PDF
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The article highlights for the first time the material connected to the sound recordings of Ukrainians from WWI Prisoner-of War Camps in Germany, that were made during 1915–1918 years by the members of the Prussian Phonographic Commission which included Carl Stumpf (the head of the Commission), Georg Schünemann, Wilhelm Doegen among others. This article is a result of the author's personal research conducted at the Berlin Phonogram Archive and explores the factographic documents that include the data about the sound recordings themselves, the history and process of the creation of the documents and their digital versions made a 100 years after the Prussian Phonographic Commission's project has started. The research also presents the first results of the analysis of the repertoire recorded from Ukrainian prisoners-of WWI, specifically its culture and genre characteristics.

Keywords: Berlin Phonogram Archive, Prussian Phonographic Commission, Carl Stumpf, Georg Schünemann, Wilhelm Doegen, Ukrainians from WWI Prisoner-of-War Camps in Germany, identity, sound recordings, factographic data, register, repertoire, cultural and genre specifics.
Oleksandr Kropyvnyi
Hierarchical Data Model to Digital Repository: Transition Stage in Organizing the Ukrainian Musical Folklore Collection of the Kyiv Laboratory of Ethnomusicology   PDF
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Due to the extraordinary value and uniqueness of folklore materials in the Ukrainian archives and private collections of scholars, preserving these materials is an extremely important task, especially in the context of Russian aggression in Ukraine. Modern digital technologies open up new opportunities for the preservation, research, and dissemination of Ukrainian musical folklore. However, in order to effectively utilize these opportunities, it is necessary to develop completely new approaches to the creation of digital audiovisual archives. Despite the fact that the possibility of fully implementing such projects in the future is rather difficult due to limited technical and financial resources, the possibility of easy access to the materials of folklore collections can be organized using existing approaches by optimizing them.

The article analyzes the current state of the analog and digital collection of Ukrainian musical folklore in the Kyiv Laboratory of Ethnomusicology (officially known as the Problematic Research Laboratory of Ethnomusicology of the Ukrainian National Music Academy). The article also highlights the main features of the musical folklore collection organization and the problems that arise when working with them. Author proposes the idea of introducing a transitional stage in the organization of musical folklore collections, which would allow to prepare more effectively the transition to the new type of archives and solve a number of existing problems in the current challenging conditions.

Keywords: Ukrainian musical folklore, ethnomusicology, archiving, digital archive, ordering.
Kvitka Klyment (author)
Bohdan Lukaniuk (the publisher)
About Syncretism   PDF
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The proposed essay by K. Kvitka, written probably in the late forties of the last century has significant methodological and theoretical meaning. Here, for the first time in global practice, the popular theory of the existence in the dawn of human development of a primitive polyelemental form – choral play – has been criticized. This form encompassed words, music, dance, and action as a unified whole, from which, in the process of evolution, not only separate artistic forms emerged – literature, music, choreography, and theater, but also genres specific to each of them – epic, lyrical and dramatic. Through a comprehensive analysis of the main points of this concept, the scholar concludes, albeit presented in a thesis-like manner, its complete logical incapacity. This conclusion is drawn not only based on the Eastern European folklore, containing numerous rituals comparable to the creative expressions of non-European peoples, for constructing assumptions about the essence of primitive art but also refutes the theory of universal primordial syncretism both worldwide and in ancient Slavic cultures. K. Kvitka's essay, still lost in his manuscript heritage kept in the archives of the K. V. Kvitka Center of Folk Music at the Moscow Conservatory named after P. I. Tchaikovsky, is being published for the first time in Ukrainian translation. Therefore, one should hope that the reservations of the great scientist, becoming the acquisition of broad literary and art circles, will be taken into account, and the pseudo-theory of primitive syncretism will fade into obscurity.

Keywords: primitive syncretism, poetry, music, dance, labor, rhythmic movements, unity, separate components.
Sunday Olufemi Akande
Folk Songs as Contrivance for Promoting Yoruba Cultural Values and Social Interaction Among Yoruba Children    PDF
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Music is share of culture and therefore establishes an integral part of the life of people. The inherent value of folk music cannot be challenged in promotion of cultural values and social interaction in a Yoruba child and in the making of a child as being resourceful, useful and a good citizen, living according to the societal norms and customs. This study employed the historical research method. The study identifies and provides musical notation of some selected Yoruba folk songs materials that can be interpreted musically and also examines the influence and efficacy of Yoruba folk songs in promoting cultural and moral values and social interaction among children. The lyrics of some selected folk songs were analysed. The findings revealed that folk songs establish a vibrant forum through which members of a society respond and acclimatize to the culture of the society and a veritable tool for social interaction. It therefore recommends that contemporary government and cultural institutions like traditional leaders, Obas (Kings) and chiefs should provide better funding and cultural support in order to ensure preservation of such cultural institutions and heritage. The media will also do so much through an incessant broadcast of folk songs.

Keywords: Folk Songs, Contrivance, Promoting Cultural Values and Social
Yarema Pavliv
Folk Instrumental Performance: Theory and Practice: Program for Music Universities (III–IV accreditation levels) from Specialty No. 025 “Musical Art" (educational and qualification level “Bachelor")   PDF
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The elective course "Folk Instrumental Performance: Theory and Practice" is designed for students who, regardless of their musical specialization, intend to explore the culture of traditional instrumental music in Ukraine. The course program includes an introductory section justifying relevance, goals, objectives, teaching methods, and approaches, as well as five content modules. The first module covers the basics of ethno-instrumentology's theory. The next three modules focus on the theoretical and practical exploration of genres in traditional instrumental music from different ethnographic regions of Ukraine. The genres are differentiated into lyric, dramatic, and epic expressions, and by functions into groups for singing, dancing, and listening. The fifth module encompasses theoretical studies and practice in revival folklore performance. In addition to classroom sessions, the program includes independent work to reinforce and deepen theoretical knowledge and practical skills.

Students can choose one or several forms of practical work, such as playing a musical instrument, studies of the repertoire, and playing manner of a specific local tradition; transcribing audio-recorded samples of folk instrumental music; analyzing the construction, structure, tunings, and acoustic parameters of musical instruments; studying of regional, and individual performance styles; participating in folklore ex216
peditions; organizing and conducting educational and artistic events dedicated to musical folklore; cataloging and archiving folklore materials. The course is developed based on materials from audiovisual, printed, and manuscript sources of traditional instrumental music in Ukraine and partially from neighboring countries. Evaluational methods include generals aimed at phased testing of mandatory theoretical knowledge and individual involving regular demonstrations of new developments and skills in one or more chosen directions by the student.

Keywords: traditional instrumental music, folk performance, ethnoorganology, regional folklore style, manner of playing, scientific and performance reconstructions, musical folklore, Ukrainian culture.
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